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    Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
    Lung Cancer
    journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/lungcan
    A promising role of interferon regulatory factor 5 as an early warning biomarker for the development of human non-small cell lung cancer 
    T
    Jia Guoa, Xiaohong Wanga, Ying Wangb, Liying Wangb,c, Shucheng Huaa,
    a Department of Respiratory Medicine, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, PR China
    b Institute of Paediatrics, The First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, PKF118-310 Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, PR China
    c Department of Molecular Biology, The College of Basic Medical Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun, Jilin, 130021, PR China
    Classification codes:
    Interferon regulatory factor 5
    Non-small cell lung cancer
    Biomarker
    Early diagnosis 
    Objectives: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for 85%–90% of lung cancer cases and is a covert disease lacking early symptoms. Since cancer is recognised as an inflammation-associated condition, we ana-lysed the relationship between the expression of interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5), a key transcription factor controlling inflammatory responses, and NSCLC development with the aim of identifying a warning biomarker for early diagnosis of the disease.
    Materials and methods: The expression of IRF5 and its associated inflammatory factors IL-6, IL-10, IP-10, and TNF-α in the peripheral blood of NSCLC patients (n = 66) and healthy controls (n = 42) was analysed by quantitative RT-PCR, flow cytometry, and a cytometric bead array. IRF5 protein expression in NSCLC tissues (n = 102) was detected by Western blotting. The diagnostic value of IRF5 expression was determined by a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis.
    Results: The protein levels of IRF5, IL-6, and IP-10 were significantly higher in the peripheral blood of NSCLC patients than in that of healthy controls. IP-10 levels in plasma and IL-10 mRNA expression in white blood cells (WBCs) were significantly upregulated in early-stage NSCLC, whereas plasma IL-6 and IL-10 were elevated in the progressive stage. IRF5 protein levels in WBCs were positively correlated with plasma IP-10 but negatively correlated with plasma IL-10. Furthermore, the mRNA and protein levels of IRF5 in WBCs were significantly elevated in patients with early stage NSCLC compared to those in the progressive stage. Additionally, IRF5 protein levels were significantly lower in NSCLC tumour tissues than those in normal lung tissues.